The term gens was used in reference to patricians; that of stirps, to plebeians. ", {20.} [181] L   "I forbear to mention many examples of cases of the greatest consequence, which are indeed without number. Denn gesetzt, es wolle einer den für einen Redner halten, der nur mit Rechtsangelegenheiten und in den Gerichten entweder vor dem Volk oder im Senat mit Fülle reden könne, so muss er doch selbst diesem vieles einräumen und zugestehen. Dicendi enim virtus, nisi ei, qui dicet, ea, quae dicet, percepta sunt, exstare non potest. Videoqualität. 6. 1.153 ut concitato navigio, cum remiges inhibuerunt, retinet tamen ipsa navis motum et cursum suum intermisso impetu pulsuque remorum, sic in oratione perpetua, cum scripta deficiunt, parem tamen obtinet oratio reliqua cursum scriptorum similitudine et vi concitata. (38)   For he who had a son under his power should have taken care to institute him his heir, or to disinherit him by name; since if a father pretermitted or passed over his son in silence, the testament was of no effect. Etenim videmus eisdem de rebus ieiune quosdam et exiliter, ut eum, quem acutissimum ferunt, Chrysippum, disputavisse neque ob eam rem philosophiae non satis fecisse, quod non habuerit hanc dicendi ex arte aliena facultatem. Caesar, Catull, Cicero, Ovid oder Phaedrus übersichtlich dargestellt.latein übersetzung latein uebersetzung latein-uebersetzunglatein-uebersetzung.de ", {35.} When I was a young man, I was on one occasion so timid in commencing an accusation, that I owed to Q. Maximus ** the greatest of obligations for immediately dismissing the assembly, as soon as he saw me absolutely disheartened and incapacitated through fear." comment. Bestand und Wandel seiner geistigen Welt, M. Tulli Ciceronis Pro Archia poeta oratio, heraugegeben und erläutert von Otto Schönberger, Bamberg, Wiesbaden, Bayerische Verlagsanstalt, 5,1969. i. ... download 1 file . Quis enim nescit maximam vim exsistere oratoris in hominum mentibus vel ad iram aut ad odium aut ad dolorem incitandis vel ab hisce eisdem permotionibus ad lenitatem misericordiamque revocandis? THREE TEXTCRITICAL NOTES ON CICERO, DE ORATORE (II 321; 327; 364)1) II 321 (p. 2417 in … Da kommt bei mir einfach nichts sinnvolles bei raus Deswegen hoffe … De oratore Cic.de orat.1,45-57 Crassus besteht auf der Notwendigkeit einer universalen Bildung des Redners selbst bei der von Scaevola geforderten Einschränkung 1. vii. That there are also certain common places on which we may insist in judicial proceedings, in which equity is the object; others, which we may adopt in deliberations, all which are to be directed to the advantage of those to whom we give counsel; others in panegyric, in which all must be referred to the dignity of the persons commended. The plaintiff or creditor. In Antonium (Oratio IV), hg. [139] But that, in either case, whatever falls under controversy, the question with regard to it is usually, whether such a thing has been done, or, if it has been done, of what nature it is, or by what name it should be called; or, as some add, whether it seems to have been done rightly or not. [158] The poets must also be studied; an acquaintance must be formed with history; the writers and teachers in all the liberal arts and sciences must be read, and turned over, and must, for the sake of exercise, be praised, interpreted, corrected, censured, refuted; you must dispute on both sides of every question; and whatever may seem maintainable on any point, must be brought forward and illustrated. (39)   The son of a freedman of the Claudian family had died without making a will, and his property fell by law to the Claudii: but there were two families of them, the Claudii Pulchri, who were patricians, and the Claudii Marcelli, who were plebeians; and these two families went to law about the possession of the dead man's property. [172] But, as you desired to learn my sentiments and opinions, I will conceal nothing from you, but, as far as I am able, will communicate to you my thoughts upon every subject. [97] For I, who from my early youth, have felt a strong affection for yon both, and even a love for Crassus, having never left his company, could never yet elicit a word from him on the method and art of speaking, though I not only solicited him myself, but endeavoured to move him through the agency of Drusus; on which subject you, Antonius, (I speak but the truth,) never failed to answer my requests and questioning, and have very often told me what you used to notice in speaking. 3. "Say you so?" Ellendt. It is required by city services that neighbours should bear the burdens of neighbours; and, by such services, one neighbour may be permitted to place a beam upon the wall of another; may be compelled to receive the droppings and currents from the gutter-pipes of another man's house upon his own house, area, or sewer; or may be exempted from receiving them; or may be restrained from raising his house in height, lest he should darken the habitation of his neighbour. M. TVLLI CICERONIS DE INVENTIONE Liber Primus: Liber Secundus. He was called quasi-patronus, because none but Roman citizens could have patrons. Dies verhandelte ich damals zu Athen mit den Philosophen selbst. von cicero eine übersetzung 1 Latin text and English translation of De optimo genere oratorum from Hubbell, H. M., Cicero. [135] But I am aware that a desire to reach any point avails nothing, unless you know what will lead and bring you to the mark at which you aim. ‹ Vorherige Textstelle oder Nächste Textstelle › And if the parents disinherited their children without cause, the civil law was, that they might complain that such testaments were invalid, under colour that their parents were not of sound mind when they made them. (Du hättest Himmel und Hölle in Bewegung gesetzt. De oratore, für den Schulgebrauch, erklärt von Karl Wilhelm Piderit. Betreff des Beitrags: Cicero de oratore 2,21. B. De Oratore, I 148 “This training,” said Sulpicius, “is the very thing we wish to understand: and none the less we are longing to hear you on those precepts of the art over which you have briefly run, although those too are not unknown to us. M. TVLLIVS CICERO (106 – 43 B.C.) Inst. The Roman law, in that particular founded on the law of nature, ordained, to avoid deceit in bargain and sale, that the seller should give notice of all the bad qualities in the thing sold which he knew of, or pay damages to the purchaser for his silence; to which law Horace alludes, Sat. Nihil est denique in natura rerum omnium, quod se universum profundat et quod totum repente evolvat; sic omnia, quae fiunt quaeque aguntur acerrime, lenioribus principiis natura ipsa praetexuit. Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist (106-43 BC). It was gained by Crassus, the evident intention of the testator prevailing over the letter of the will. (8)   A town of Caria. Übersicht der Werke von Cicero - mit lateinischen Originaltexten und passenden Übersetzungen. [168] L   "Within these few days, ** while we were sitting at the tribunal of our friend Quintus Pompeius, the city praetor, did not a man who is ranked among the eloquent pray that the benefit of the ancient and usual exception, of which sum there is time for payment, might be allowed to a party from whom a sum of money was demanded; an exception which he did not understand to be made for the benefit of the creditor; so that if the defendant ** had proved to the judge that the action was brought for the money before it became due, the plaintiff, ** on bringing a fresh action, would be precluded by the exception, that the matter had before come into judgment. 28, and Cicero, De Inv. cit., 151-2, for statement and some detailed examples. Latin 1496181387. Who does not know that Q. Varius, your equal in age, a clumsy, uncouth man, has obtained his great popularity by the cultivation of such faculties as he has ? Interpret.   |   Harris's Justinian, ii. [127] To the acquirement of other arts it is sufficient for a person to resemble a man, and to be able to comprehend in his mind, and retain in his memory, what is instilled, or, if he is very dull, inculcated into him; no volubility of tongue is necessary, no quickness of utterance; none of those things which we cannot form for ourselves, aspect, countenance, look, voice. In the first place, I will not deny that, as becomes a man well born and liberally educated, I learned those trite and common precepts of teachers in general; [138] first, that it is the business of an orator to speak in a manner adapted to persuade; next, that every speech is either upon a question concerning a matter in general, without specification of persons or times, or concerning a matter referring to certain persons and times. Aufl., besorgt von O. Harnecker Item Preview M. vero Scaurus, quem non longe, ruri, apud se esse audio, vir regendae reipublicae scientissimus, si 150 ii. sed ego neque illis adsentiebar neque harum disputationum inventori et principi longe omnium in dicendo gravissimo et eloquentissimo, Platoni, cuius tum Athenis cum Charmada diligentius legi Gorgiam; quo in libro in hoc maxime admirabar Platonem, quod mihi in oratoribus inridendis ipse esse orator summus videbatur. Haec ego cum ipsis philosophis tum Athenis disserebam; cogebat enim me M. Marcellus hic noster, qui nunc aedilis curulis est et profecto, nisi ludos nunc faceret, huic nostro sermoni interesset; ac iam tum erat adulescentulus his studiis mirifice deditus. See Cic. (24)   The cause was this. Gesner conjectured, atque digessisse; Lambinus, atque in artem redegisse; Ernesti, ad artemque redegisse. See also Grotius, ii. Translated by J.S.Watson (1860), with some minor alterations. {31.} exclaimed Sulpicius; "for what I could never obtain, either by entreaty, or stratagem, or scrutiny, (so that I was unable, not only to see what Crassus did, with a view to meditation or composition, but even to gain a notion of it from his secretary and reader, Diphilus,) I hope we have now secured, and that we shall learn from himself all that we have long desired to know.". ** [177] As to that other matter also, which we have heard was contested at law before the centumviri, when an exile came to Rome, (who had the privilege of living in exile at Rome, if he attached himself to any citizen as a patron,) and died intestate, was not, in a case of that nature, the law of attachment, ** obscure and indeed unknown, expounded and illustrated by the pleader?   |   06.06.19 What case, for instance, could be of more consequence than that of the soldier, of whose death a false report was brought home from the army, and his father, through giving credit to that report, altered his will, and appointed another person, whom he thought proper, to be his heir; and after the father himself died, the affair, when the soldier returned home and instituted a suit for his paternal inheritance, came on to be heard before the centumviri? See also Quint xi. In exercising the memory, too, I shall not object if you accustom yourself to adopt that plan of referring to places and figures which is taught in treatises on the art. the definition of rhetoric in Rhet. Click on the L symbols to go to the Latin text of each section. Geeignet für die Oberstufe Latein. "Yet," replied Crassus, "those advocates neither wanted eloquence, nor method, nor abundance of words, but a knowledge of the civil law: for in this case one, in bringing his suit, sought to recover more damages than the law of the Twelve Tables allowed, and, if he had gained those damages, would have lost his case: the other thought it unjust that he himself should be proceeded against for more than was allowed in that sort of action, and did not understand that his adversary, if he proceeded in that manner, would lose his suit. Boston: R. P. & C. Williams, Cornhill-Square, (Between No. (17)   A practice recommended by Quintilian, x. The defendant or debtor. 18; Vell. De optimo genere oratorum. XL H.264 960x540px 2 Mbit/s für > DSL 2000 195 MB L H.264 640x360px ", {22.} Attalus' home page [162] "Then," said Scaevola, "why do you not act in the same way as you would do, if you had really come into a house or villa full of rich furniture? Gell. Dicta tibi est Lex. Ship This Item — Qualifies for ... See details. svisque adnot. Auch Metrodoros war da, der mit jenen zugleich den berühmten Karneades selbst sehr fleißig gehört hatte, der alle im Vortrag und Scharfsinn und Fülle der Rede überragte, und in großem Ansehen standen der Schüler deines Panaitios, Mnesarchos, und Diodoros, der Schüler des Peripatetikers Kritolaos. Beitrag Verfasst: 28.05.2006, 10:41 . 'Of which sum there is a time for payment,' were words of form in the exception from whence it was nominated; as, 'That the matter had before come into judgment,' were in the other exception re iudicata. vii. He that was condemned on such a trial, was decreed to pay damages to his ward to the amount of what his affairs had suffered through his means, and, in addition, by the law of the Twelve Tables, was to pay something by way of fine. ii. Pro Quinctio: Pro Roscio Amerino: Pro Roscio Comodeo: de Lege Agraria Contra Rullum {33.} When do you imagine that I have ever regarded or thought upon such matters, or have not always rather ridiculed the impudence of those men who, seated in the schools, would demand if any one, in a numerous assembly of persons, wished to ask any question, and desire him to speak? Or, His Three Dialogues Upon the Character and Qualifications of an Orator. Wenn ich nun diesen auch zugeben will, dass sie diese Gegenstände in ihren Winkeln, um sich die Zeit zu vertreiben, erörtern, so werde ich doch das dem Redner zuerteilen und zuerkennen, dass, während jene diese Gegenstände in einer mageren und kraftlosen Sprache abhandeln, dieser die nämlichen mit aller Anmut und Würde entwickelt. An heir was allowed a certain time to determine, cernere, whether he would enter upon an estate bequeathed to him, or not. [164] "Indeed," said Scaevola, "I desired that before, more upon your account than my own; nor did I feel so much longing for this discussion from Crassus, as I experience pleasure from his speeches in pleading. exclaimed Crassus, "do you put a trifling question to me, as to some idle and talkative, though perhaps studious and learned Greek, on which I may speak according to my humour? Bildungsideal, Einflüsse römischen Lebens und Denkens auf Ciceros.. "De oratore", Orator perfectus-Ciceroreden (Cic.Lig.)  Prudens emisti vitiosum. {34.} Cicero - De Oratore 1, 30 - Das Leitziel der Redekunst - Übersetzung von kuz-chiller. . "I am, then, of opinion," said Crassus, "that nature and genius in the first place contribute most aid to speaking; and that to those writers on the art, to whom Antonius just now alluded, it was not skill and method in speaking, but natural talent that was wanting; for there ought to be certain lively powers in the mind ** and understanding, which may be acute to invent, fertile to explain and adorn, and strong and retentive to remember; [114] and if any one imagines that these powers may be acquired by art, (which is false, for it is very well if they can be animated and excited by art; but they certainly cannot by art be ingrafted or instilled, since they are all the gifts of nature,) what will he say of those qualities which are certainly born with the man himself, volubility of tongue, tone of voice, strength of lungs, and a peculiar conformation and aspect of the whole countenance and body ? [132] For any person better qualified for this profession by gracefulness of motion, by his very carriage and figure, or by the fulness and sweetness of his voice, I think that I have never heard speak; endowments which those, to whom they are granted by nature in an inferior degree, may yet succeed in managing, in such measure as they possess them, with judgment and skill, and in such a manner as not to be unbecoming; for that is what is chiefly to be avoided, and concerning which it is most difficult to give any rules for instruction, not only for me, who talk of these matters like a private citizen, but even for Roscius himself, whom I often hear say that the most essential part of art is to be becoming, which yet is the only thing that cannot be taught by art. A certain intellectual grace must also be extracted from every kind of refinement, with which, as with salt, every oration must be seasoned. Vol. 9.9 In Stock Overview "De Oratore" from Cicero. Translated by J.S.Watson (1860), with some minor alterations. ", [136] L   "O day much wished for by us, Cotta!" If you would know what I myself think, I will express to you, my intimate friends, what I have hitherto never mentioned, and thought that I never should mention. (1)   Cretionibus. Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist (106-43 BC). quibus ego, ut de his rebus in angulis consumendi oti causa disserant, cum concessero, illud tamen oratori tribuam et dabo, ut eadem, de quibus illi tenui quodam exsanguique sermone disputant, hic cum omni iucunditate et gravitate explicet. Proust. First American Edition. [174] It is ridiculous arrogance for a man to confess himself unskilful in navigating smaller vessels, and yet say that he has learned to pilot galleys with five banks of oars, or even larger ships. Not only orators are to be observed by us, but even actors, lest by bad habits we contract any awkwardness or ungracefulness. What impudence must that advocate have who dares to appear in cases of such a nature without any knowledge of that law? und die rhetorische Theorie, Cic.de orat.1,45-59: Crassus besteht auf derNotwendigkeit einer universalen Bildung des Redners selbst bei der von Scaevola geforderten Einschränkung, Nos personalia non concoquimus. In a like case, but concerning a person of inferior rank, it was inquired among our ancestors, whether, if a person belonging to a state in alliance with Rome had been in slavery amongst us, and gained his freedom, and afterwards returned home, he returned by the right of postliminium, and lost the citizenship of this city. M. TVLLI CICERONIS DE ORATORE Liber Primus: Liber Secundus: Liber Tertius. Hier ist die Latein Hausübung über die Rethorischen Tipps des Cicero aus DE ORATORE ... Wer viel schreibt, spricht besser Hierauf hielt ich es für zweckmäßig – und dieses Verfahren wandte ich in der reiferen Jugend an –, griechische Reden der größten Redner in freier Übersetzung wiederzugeben. De Oratore 150. by Cicero, The Perfect Library (Editor) Paperback $ 9.90. 2:   Just. Click on ** to go to the translator's footnotes. [128] But in an orator, the acuteness of the logicians, the wisdom of the philosophers, the language almost of poetry, the memory of lawyers, the voice of tragedians, the gesture almost of the best actors, is required. SHOW ALL. [102] "And which of us," responded Cotta, "can be so presuming as to desire to know or to be able to do anything that you do not know or cannot do?" When he imitated the practice of Carbo, he was, he says, adolescentulus. 0. [152] Such are the qualities which bring applause and admiration to good orators; nor will any man ever attain them, unless after long and great practice in writing, however resolutely he may have exercised himself in extemporary speeches; and he who comes to speak after practice in writing brings this advantage with him, that though he speak on the spur of the moment, yet what he says will bear a resemblance to something written; and if ever, when he comes to speak, he brings anything with him in writing, the rest of his speech, when he departs from what is written, will flow on in a similar strain. 13. Orator was written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the latter part of the year 46 BC. [143] I had learned and understood also, that before we enter upon the main subject, the minds of the audience should be conciliated by an exordium; next, that the case should be clearly stated; then, that the point in controversy should be established; then, that what we maintain should be supported by proof, and that whatever was said on the other side should be refuted; and that, in the conclusion of our speech, whatever was in our favour should be amplified and enforced, and whatever made for our adversaries should be weakened and invalidated. Novembris, C. Manlium, audaciae satellitem atque administrum tuae? The Apollonius mentioned above, c. 17, was Apollonius Molon, a native of Rhodes. Wir sehen ja, dass einige über dieselben Gegenstände trocken und dürftig gesprochen haben, wie zum Beispiel Chrysippos, dessen großen Scharfsinn man rühmt und der darum, dass er diese Geschicklichkeit im Reden aus einer fremden Kunst nicht besaß, nicht minder der Philosophie Genüge geleistet hat. One of them was Hypsaeus, the other Gnaeus Octavius, who had been consul 128 B.C. Nostri consocii (. ii. Often paraphrased as Historia est Magistra Vitae, it conveys the idea that the study of the past should serve as a lesson to the future, and was an important pillar of classical, medieval and Renaissance historiography.. I have followed Orellius and Ernesti in my translation. ", "By no means," said Cotta, "for we must now entreat you (since you retain us in this study, and do not dismiss us to any other pursuit) to tell us something of your own abilities, whatever they are, in speaking; for we are not inordinately ambitious; we are satisfied with that mediocrity of eloquence of yours; and what we inquire of you is (that we may not attain more than that humble degree of oratory at which you have arrived) ** what you think, since you say that the endowments to be derived from nature are not very deficient in us, we ought to endeavour to acquire in addition. Proust. [144] L   "I had heard also what is taught about the adornment of a speech; in regard to which it is first directed that we should speak correctly and in pure Latin; next, intelligibly and with perspicuity; then gracefully; then suitably to the dignity of the subject, and as it were becomingly; and I had made myself acquainted with the rules relating to every particular. (45)   This celebrated case is so clearly stated by Cicero as to require no explanation. Und dieser ganze Gegenstand wird als ein Eigentum der Philosophen betrachtet, und der Redner wird, wenn er meinem Rat folgen will, dies nie bestreiten. Hat also jener Naturphilosoph Demokritos einen schönen Vortrag gehabt, wie man sagt und mir scheint, so gehörte der Stoff, über den er sprach, dem Naturphilosophen an, der Schmuck der Worte aber muss als ein Eigentum des Redners angesehen werden. Download. Inst. ← Previous sections (1-95) TORRENT download. Wer die Gemütsarten der Menschen und das ganze Wesen der menschlichen Natur und die Ursachen, durch die die Gemüter entweder angereizt oder beschwichtigt werden, nicht von Grund aus erkannt hat, wird durch seine Rede das nicht erreichen können, was er will. [98] And since each of you has opened a way to these subjects of our research, and since Crassus was the first to commence this discourse, do us the favour to acquaint us fully and exactly what you think about the various kinds of eloquence. The patrician Claudii (whose family was the eldest of the name) claimed the inheritance by right of gens, on the ground that the freedman was of the gens Claudia, of which their family was the chief; . For if the multitude of suits, if the variety of cases, if the rabble and barbarism of the forum, afford room for even the most wretched speakers, we must not, for that reason, take our eyes from the object of out inquiry. Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: 31. Nam et civitatum regendarum oratori gubernacula sententia sua tradidit: in quo per mihi mirum visum est, Scaevola, te hoc illi concedere; cum saepissime tibi Senatus, breviter impoliteque dicenti, maximis sit de rebus assensus. Nothing therefore is more rarely found among mankind than a consummate orator; for qualifications which professors of other arts are commended for acquiring in a moderate degree, each in his respective pursuit, will not be praised in the orator, unless they are all combined in him in the highest possible excellence. 5. Ellendt. [106] For my part, as I always thought you a god in eloquence, so I have never attributed to you greater praises for oratory than for politeness; which you ought to show on this occasion especially, and not to decline a discussion on which two young men of such excellent ability invite you to enter." (42)   There is a more particular statement of this cause between Gratidianus and rata in Cicero's De Off., iii. Cicero. Was he not possessed of as great a share of eloquence as those times and that age ** would admit in this city, and at the same time the most learned of all men in the civil law? Und wenn Platon über Gegenstände, die von bürgerlichen Streitigkeiten weit entfernt sind, unvergleichlich schön gesprochen hat, was ich zugebe, wenn gleichfalls Aristoteles, wenn Theophrastos, wenn Karneades die von ihnen behandelten Gegenstände in einer beredten, anmutigen und geschmückten Sprache darlegen, so mögen die Gegenstände ihrer Vorträge anderen Wissensgebieten angehören, der Vortrag selbst ist sicherlich Eigentum dieser Kunst allein, die wir in unserem Gespräch untersuchen. ← Previous sections (74-145) 2. Nam et civitatum regendarum oratori gubernacula sententia sua tradidit: in quo per mihi mirum visum est, Scaevola, te hoc illi concedere; cum saepissime tibi Senatus, breviter impoliteque dicenti, maximis sit de rebus assensus. [131] L   "Would you then," said Sulpicius, "desire me, or our friend Cotta, to learn the civil law, or the military art? (40)   Ius applicationis. 59 & 58, Cornhill.) ORATORIA. Just. 67; De Nat. "If you think it scarcely worthy of my age to listen to those ordinary precepts, commonly known everywhere, can we possibly neglect those other matters which you said must be known by the orator, respecting the dispositions and manners of mankind, the means by which the minds of men are excited or calmed, history, antiquity, the administration of the republic, and finally of our own civil law itself? [163] "I rather ask you, Scaevola," says Cotta, "to do that for me; (for modesty forbids Sulpicius and myself to ask of one of the most eminent of mankind, who has ever held in contempt this kind of disputation, such things as he perhaps regards only as rudiments for children;) but do you oblige us in this, Scaevola, and prevail on Crassus to unfold and enlarge upon those matters which he has crowded together, and crammed into so small a space in his speech." Quae nisi qui naturas hominum vimque omnem humanitatis causasque eas, quibus mentes aut incitantur aut reflectuntur, penitus perspexerit, dicendo quod volet perficere non poterit. M. Tullius Cicero, De Partitione Oratoria A. S. Wilkins, Ed. (3/ca. . in entering upon an inheritance, in undertaking guardianship. It is his last work on rhetoric, three years before his death. Nam si quis erit qui hoc dicat, esse quasdam oratorum proprias sententias atque causas et certarum rerum forensibus cancellis circumscriptam scientiam, fatebor equidem in his magis adsidue versari hanc nostram dictionem, sed tamen in his ipsis rebus permulta sunt, quae ipsi magistri, qui rhetorici vocantur, nec tradunt nec tenent. xxii. Or if trees have been carried away from your land to that of your neighbour, and have taken root there, etc. 1. By William Guthrie, Esq. 27; Heinecc. Im Unterschied zu anderen Werken - etwa "De Amicitia" oder "De re publica", welche als Dialoge angelegt sind - bediente sich Cicero bei De officiis der Briefform: Unmittelbar adressiert war es an seinen Sohn Marcus, der in Athen studierte, doch darf man annehmen, das Cicero ein größeres Publikum ansprechen wollte. (26)   Petitor. (11)   Invention, disposition, embellishment, memory, and delivery. As to myself, I acknowledge that I have always avoided any such kind of discourse, and have often declined to comply with your requests and appeals, as you just now observed.

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